Source code for gino.ext.tornado

GINO provides a convenient plugin for integrating with Tornado_ webserver.
It consists of two parts, each of them is optional.

.. _Tornado:

.. warning::

    Tornado doesn't wrap request handlers to asyncio tasks, hence
    task locals doesn't work in request handlers by default. To fix this,
    you may either redefine ``_execute()`` method on you handlers to wrap
    request processing into a task, or simply use
    as a base class for all of your handlers.

    See `integrate GINO with application and request handlers`_ for more

Provide tornado-specific methods on models

GINO can provide a webframework-aware ``.get_or_404()`` method which work
similar to ``.get()`` but raises an appropriate error whenever requested object
not found. In case of tornado, an appropriate error is

To have it working, simply use :py:class:`gino.ext.tornado.Gino` as your
database metadata.

Integrate GINO with application and request handlers

In addition to ``.get_or_404()``, GINO provides bases for application and
request handler objects.

Inherit your application class from :py:class:`gino.ext.tornado.Application`
to automate connection pool management and provide access to the database
object to all of your request handlers via ``self.application.db``.

Inherit your request handlers from
:py:class:`gino.ext.tornado.AsyncioRequestHandler` to enable task locals

Inherit your request handlers from
:py:class:`gino.ext.tornado.GinoRequestHandler` to enable active connection
Note that :py:class:`gino.ext.tornado.GinoRequestHandler` requires your
application to have a ``db`` property with ``acquire`` coroutine so its best to
use it with :py:class:`gino.ext.tornado.Application`.

Settings defined by this extension

GINO would define some options for database configuration. Use them with
the standard ``tornado.options`` module:

- ``'db_driver'`` -- if not set, ``asyncpg``;
- ``'db_host'`` -- if not set, ``localhost``;
- ``'db_port'`` -- if not set, ``5432``;
- ``'db_user'`` -- if not set, ``postgres``;
- ``'db_password'`` -- if not set, empty string;
- ``'db_database'`` -- if not set, ``postgres``;
- ``'db_echo'`` -- whether to enable SQLAlchemy echo mode, defaults to False.
- ``dsn`` -- a SQLAlchemy database URL to create the engine, its existence
  will replace all previous connect arguments.
- ``'db_pool_min_size'`` -- number of connection the pool will be initialized
  with. Default is ``5``;
- ``'db_pool_max_size'`` -- max number of connections in the pool.
  Default is ``10``;
- ``'db_pool_max_inactive_conn_lifetime'`` -- number of seconds after which
  inactive connections in the pool will be closed.  Pass ``0`` to disable this
  mechanism. Default is ``300``;
- ``'db_pool_max_queries '`` -- number of queries after a connection is closed
  and replaced with a new connection. Default is ``50000``.

An example application

A helloworld application that uses tornado and GINO may look like this:

.. code-block:: python

    import tornado.web
    import tornado.ioloop
    import tornado.options
    import tornado.escape

    from gino.ext.tornado import Gino, Application, GinoRequestHandler

    # Define your database metadata
    # -----------------------------

    db = Gino()

    # Define tables as you would normally do
    # --------------------------------------

    class User(db.Model):
        __tablename__ = 'users'

        id = db.Column(db.Integer(), primary_key=True, autoincrement=True)
        nickname = db.Column(db.Unicode(), nullable=False)

    # Now just use your tables
    # ------------------------

    class AllUsers(GinoRequestHandler):
        async def get(self):
            users = await User.query.gino.all()

            for user in users:
                url = self.application.reverse_url('user',
                nickname = tornado.escape.xhtml_escape(user.nickname)
                self.write(f'<a href="{url}">{nickname}</a><br/>')

    class GetUser(GinoRequestHandler):
        async def get(self, uid):
            user: User = await User.get_or_404(int(uid))
            self.write(f'Hi, {user.nickname}!')

    if __name__ == '__main__':

        app = Application([
            tornado.web.URLSpec(r'/', AllUsers, name='index'),
            tornado.web.URLSpec(r'/user/(?P<uid>[0-9]+)', GetUser, name='user')
        ], debug=True)

        loop = tornado.ioloop.IOLoop.current().asyncio_loop

        # If you intend to use HTTPServer in multiprocessed environment,
        # call the app.late_init method after calling HTTPServer.start(n).
        # This will create one connection pool per process.



API reference


import asyncio
import sys
import typing

import tornado.ioloop
import tornado.iostream
import tornado.log
import tornado.platform.asyncio
import tornado.web

from sqlalchemy.engine.url import URL
from tornado.options import options as _options, define as _define
    # noinspection PyPackageRequirements
    from aiocontextvars import enable_inherit as _enable_inherit
except ImportError:
    _enable_inherit = lambda _: None  # NOQA

from ..api import Gino as _Gino, GinoExecutor as _Executor
from ..engine import GinoConnection as _Connection, GinoEngine as _Engine
from ..strategies import GinoStrategy

def _assert_not_negative(name):
    def inner(value):
        if value < 0:
            raise ValueError(name + ' should be non-negative')
    return inner

_define('db_driver', 'asyncpg', str, group='database')
_define('db_host', 'localhost', str, group='database')
_define('db_port', 5432, int, group='database')
_define('db_user', 'postgres', str, group='database')
_define('db_password', 'password', str, group='database')
_define('db_database', 'postgres', str, group='database')
_define('db_echo', False, bool, group='database')
_define('db_pool_min_size', 5, int, group='database',
_define('db_pool_max_size', 10, int, group='database',
_define('db_pool_max_inactive_conn_lifetime', 300, float, group='database',
_define('db_pool_max_queries', 50000, int, group='database',

[docs]class TornadoModelMixin:
[docs] @classmethod async def get_or_404(cls, *args, **kwargs): # noinspection PyUnresolvedReferences rv = await cls.get(*args, **kwargs) if rv is None: raise tornado.web.HTTPError(404) return rv
# noinspection PyClassHasNoInit
[docs]class GinoExecutor(_Executor):
[docs] async def first_or_404(self, *args, **kwargs): rv = await self.first(*args, **kwargs) if rv is None: raise tornado.web.HTTPError(404) return rv
# noinspection PyClassHasNoInit
[docs]class GinoConnection(_Connection):
[docs] async def first_or_404(self, *args, **kwargs): rv = await self.first(*args, **kwargs) if rv is None: raise tornado.web.HTTPError(404) return rv
# noinspection PyClassHasNoInit
[docs]class GinoEngine(_Engine): connection_cls = GinoConnection
[docs] async def first_or_404(self, *args, **kwargs): rv = await self.first(*args, **kwargs) if rv is None: raise tornado.web.HTTPError(404) return rv
[docs]class TornadoStrategy(GinoStrategy): name = 'tornado' engine_cls = GinoEngine
[docs]class Gino(_Gino): """ Base class for GINO database. Using this class as a metadata for your database adds an additional ``get_or_404()`` method to all of your table classes. """ model_base_classes = _Gino.model_base_classes + (TornadoModelMixin,) query_executor = GinoExecutor if typing.TYPE_CHECKING: # Typehints to enable autocompletion on all Gino.Model-derived classes from ..crud import CRUDModel as __CRUDModel from ..declarative import ModelType as __ModelType class Model(__CRUDModel, TornadoModelMixin, metaclass=__ModelType): ...
[docs] async def first_or_404(self, *args, **kwargs): rv = await self.first(*args, **kwargs) if rv is None: raise tornado.web.HTTPError(404) return rv
[docs] async def set_bind(self, bind, loop=None, **kwargs): kwargs.setdefault('strategy', 'tornado') return await super().set_bind(bind, loop=loop, **kwargs)
[docs]class Application(tornado.web.Application): """ Base application that provides access to the database object and defines a convenient method for initializing all the database-related stuff. """ #: The database object associated with this application. #: Use :py:meth:`~.late_init()` to init this or set it manually. db = None #: If ``True``, enables ``GinoRequestHandler`` to create lazy connections. #: #: See :py:attr:`~.GinoRequestHandler.use_connection_for_request` #: for more info. use_connection_for_request = True
[docs] async def late_init(self, db: Gino, *, loop=None, options=_options): """ Initialize this application with a database object. This method does a few things to setup application for working with the database: - it enables task local storage; - creates a connection pool and binds it to the passed database object; - populates :py:attr:`~.db`. :param db: the :py:class:`gino.ext.tornado.Gino()` class instance that will be used in this application. :param loop: io loop that will be used to run heep server, either tornado's or asyncio's. :param options: a tornado's ``OptionParser()`` instance or any dictionary-like object with the database settings. Default is to use ``tornado.options.options`` global. """ if loop is None: loop = tornado.ioloop.IOLoop.current() if isinstance(loop, tornado.platform.asyncio.BaseAsyncIOLoop): asyncio_loop = loop.asyncio_loop elif isinstance(loop, asyncio.BaseEventLoop): asyncio_loop = loop else: raise RuntimeError('AsyncIOLoop is required to run GINO') _enable_inherit(asyncio_loop) self.db = db if 'dsn' in options: dsn = options['dsn'] else: dsn = URL( drivername=options['db_driver'], host=options['db_host'], port=options['db_port'], username=options['db_user'], password=options['db_password'], database=options['db_database'], ) await db.set_bind( dsn, echo=options['db_echo'], min_size=options['db_pool_min_size'], max_size=options['db_pool_max_size'], max_inactive_connection_lifetime=( options['db_pool_max_inactive_conn_lifetime'] ), max_queries=options['db_pool_max_queries'], loop=asyncio_loop )
# noinspection PyAbstractClass
[docs]class AsyncioRequestHandler(tornado.web.RequestHandler): """ This class enables support for task locals by wrapping the ``_execute()`` method into ``asyncio.Task`` instances. """ async def _setup_connection(self): """ Hook for creating connection. """ pass async def _teardown_connection(self): """ Hook for destroying connection. """ pass def _execute(self, transforms, *args, **kwargs): loop = tornado.ioloop.IOLoop.current() if not isinstance(loop, tornado.platform.asyncio.BaseAsyncIOLoop): raise RuntimeError('AsyncIOLoop is required to run GINO') asyncio_loop = loop.asyncio_loop return asyncio.ensure_future( self._do_execute(transforms, *args, **kwargs), loop=asyncio_loop ) async def _do_execute(self, transforms, *args, **kwargs): """ An actual asyncio-compatible implementation on the ``_execute``. This function just takes the original generator ``_execute.__wrapped__`` and manages to pass its futures to the underlying asyncio loop. It also calls ``_setup_connection`` and ``_teardown_connection`` methods and manages all errors that happen there. """ self._transforms = transforms try: gen = super()._execute.__wrapped__( self, transforms, *args, **kwargs ) data = None exc_info = None await self._setup_connection() try: while True: try: if exc_info is None: coro = gen.send(data) else: coro = gen.throw(*exc_info) except StopIteration: return exc_info = None data = None # noinspection PyBroadException try: data = await coro except: # NOQA exc_info = sys.exc_info() finally: await self._teardown_connection() except Exception as e: # noinspection PyBroadException try: self._handle_request_exception(e) except Exception: tornado.log.app_log.exception("exception in exception handler") finally: if self._prepared_future is not None: if not self._prepared_future.done(): self._prepared_future.set_result(None)
# noinspection PyAbstractClass
[docs]class GinoRequestHandler(AsyncioRequestHandler): """ Base class for all request handlers that use GINO. In addition to features provided by :py:class:`~.AsyncioRequestHandler`, this class manages lazy connections for each request. """ __db_connection = None @property def use_connection_for_request(self): """ If ``True``, a lazy connection is created for each request. That is, whenever the first query occurs, a new connection is borrowed from the application's db object. All succeeding queries made within this request will reuse that connection. The connection will be returned to the pool once the request is finished or the :py:meth:`~.release_connection()` method is called explicitly. This property is equal to :py:attr:`Application.use_connection_for_request` by default. """ return self.application.use_connection_for_request @property def db(self): """ Access to the database object. This property is equal to :py:attr:`Application.db` by default. """ return self.application.db async def _setup_connection(self): if self.use_connection_for_request: self.__db_connection = await self.db.acquire(lazy=True) async def _teardown_connection(self): if self.__db_connection is not None: await self.__db_connection.release() self.__db_connection = None @property def db_connection(self): """ The actual connection associated with this request or ``None`` if ``use_connection_for_request`` is ``False``. """ return self.__db_connection
[docs] async def release_connection(self): """ Return the connection associated with this request back to the pool. """ await self._teardown_connection()